articles:qemu_kvm_on_centos7

QEMU/KVM/libvirtをCentOS 7にインストール

必須パッケージ

yum install centos-release-qemu-ev
yum install qemu-kvm-ev libvirt
systemctl start libvirtd

FUSEの設定が必要。

CUI用のツール

yum install qemu-kvm-tools-ev virt-install virt-top virt-dib virt-v2v libguestfs-tools libguestfs-bash-completion libguestfs-rsync libguestfs-xfs perl-XML-XPath

GUI用のツール

yum install virt-manager virt-viewer

インストールするパッケージの概要

パッケージ名 主要なコマンド 概要
qemu-kvm-ev qemu-kvm 2.12.0 必須
qemu-img-ev qemu-img 仮想ディスクイメージの操作
libvirt libvirt 4.5.0 必須
libvirt-client virsh, virt-host-validate, libvirt-guests.service 基本ツール
qemu-kvm-tools-ev kvm_stat
virt-install virt-install 仮想マシンの作成
virt-top virt-top
virt-dib virt-dib 仮想ディスクイメージの作成
virt-v2v virt-v2v 仮想マシンの変換
libguestfs-tools guestfish, virt-sysprep, virt-df, virt-ls ゲスト(の中のファイル)を操作するツール
libguestfs-rsync ディスクイメージをrsyncで操作
libguestfs-xfs XFSのディスクイメージ操作
perl-XML-XPath xpath

centos-release-qemu-evを使用しない場合のQEMUのパッケージ名とバージョン。

パッケージ名 主要なコマンド 概要
qemu-kvm qemu-kvm 1.5.3 必須
qemu-img qemu-img 仮想ディスクイメージの操作
qemu-kvm-tools kvm_stat
virt-host-validate

全てPASS、あるいはWARNであること。

FUSEの有効化

LXC: Checking if device /sys/fs/fuse/connections exists : FAIL (Load the 'fuse' module to enable /proc/ overrides)と表示された場合。

modprobe fuseを実行して改善されるか確認。

改善されるなら設定を永続化する。

echo fuse > /etc/modules-load.d/fuse.conf

IOMMUの有効化

QEMU: Checking if IOMMU is enabled by kernel : WARN (IOMMU appears to be disabled in kernel. Add intel_iommu=on to kernel cmdline arguments)と表示された場合。

vi /etc/sysconfig/grub

CPUがIntel製ならGRUB_CMDLINE_LINUXintel_iommu=on iommu=ptを追加。 AMD製ならiommu=ptを追加。

UEFIブートなら/etc/grub2-efi.cfgに出力、BIOSブートなら/etc/grub2.cfgに出力。

grub2-mkconfig -o /etc/grub2-efi.cfg
reboot

virt-install--os-variantに設定可能な値。

osinfo-query os

一部抜粋

Short ID Name CentOS 7
centos7.0 CentOS 7 x
centos8 CentOS 8 x
debian10 Debian 10 x
freebsd12.1 FreeBSD 12.1 x
rhel7.9 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 7.9 x
rhel8-unknown Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8 Unknown x

[root@kvmhost ~]# virsh net-dumpxml default
<network>
  <name>default</name>
  <uuid>7ee64691-b5b4-4f7e-affe-df96fe6268bd</uuid>
  <forward mode='nat'>
    <nat>
      <port start='1024' end='65535'/>
    </nat>
  </forward>
  <bridge name='virbr0' stp='on' delay='0'/>
  <mac address='52:54:00:fb:05:99'/>
  <ip address='192.168.122.1' netmask='255.255.255.0'>
    <dhcp>
      <range start='192.168.122.2' end='192.168.122.254'/>
    </dhcp>
  </ip>
</network>
[root@kvmhost ~]# nmcli con
NAME    UUID                                  TYPE      DEVICE
eth0    e1a84776-5009-44b4-a597-47e8707ec615  ethernet  eth0
virbr0  ff8c7f60-bdc3-45d4-8aab-b67d03d431fc  bridge    virbr0
[root@kvmhost ~]# nmcli -f connection.zone con show eth0
connection.zone:                        --
[root@kvmhost ~]# nmcli -f connection.zone con show virbr0
connection.zone:                        --
[root@kvmhost ~]# nmcli dev
DEVICE      TYPE      STATE      CONNECTION
eth0        ethernet  connected  eth0
virbr0      bridge    connected  virbr0
lo          loopback  unmanaged  --
virbr0-nic  tun       unmanaged  --
[root@kvmhost ~]# nmcli dev show virbr0
GENERAL.DEVICE:                         virbr0
GENERAL.TYPE:                           bridge
GENERAL.HWADDR:                         52:54:00:FB:05:99
GENERAL.MTU:                            1500
GENERAL.STATE:                          100 (connected)
GENERAL.CONNECTION:                     virbr0
GENERAL.CON-PATH:                       /org/freedesktop/NetworkManager/ActiveConnection/2
IP4.ADDRESS[1]:                         192.168.122.1/24
IP4.GATEWAY:                            --
IP4.ROUTE[1]:                           dst = 192.168.122.0/24, nh = 0.0.0.0, mt = 0
IP6.GATEWAY:                            --
[root@kvmhost ~]# nmcli dev show virbr0-nic
GENERAL.DEVICE:                         virbr0-nic
GENERAL.TYPE:                           tun
GENERAL.HWADDR:                         52:54:00:FB:05:99
GENERAL.MTU:                            1500
GENERAL.STATE:                          10 (unmanaged)
GENERAL.CONNECTION:                     --
GENERAL.CON-PATH:                       --
[root@kvmhost ~]# brctl show
bridge name     bridge id               STP enabled     interfaces
virbr0          8000.525400fb0599       yes             virbr0-nic
[root@kvmhost ~]# brctl showstp virbr0
virbr0
 bridge id              8000.525400fb0599
 designated root        8000.525400fb0599
 root port                 0                    path cost                  0
 max age                  20.00                 bridge max age            20.00
 hello time                2.00                 bridge hello time          2.00
 forward delay             2.00                 bridge forward delay       2.00
 ageing time             300.00
 hello timer               1.46                 tcn timer                  0.00
 topology change timer     0.00                 gc timer                 235.90
 flags


virbr0-nic (1)
 port id                8001                    state                  disabled
 designated root        8000.525400fb0599       path cost                100
 designated bridge      8000.525400fb0599       message age timer          0.00
 designated port        8001                    forward delay timer        0.00
 designated cost           0                    hold timer                 0.00
 flags

[root@kvmhost ~]# ip netns
[root@kvmhost ~]# ip -detail link
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00 promiscuity 0 addrgenmode eui64 numtxqueues 1 numrxqueues 1 gso_max_size 65536 gso_max_segs 65535
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:15:5d:00:24:2a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff promiscuity 0 addrgenmode none numtxqueues 64 numrxqueues 64 gso_max_size 62780 gso_max_segs 65535
3: virbr0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:fb:05:99 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff promiscuity 0
    bridge forward_delay 200 hello_time 200 max_age 2000 ageing_time 30000 stp_state 1 priority 32768 vlan_filtering 0 vlan_protocol 802.1Q bridge_id 8000.52:54:0:fb:5:99 designated_root 8000.52:54:0:fb:5:99 root_port 0 root_path_cost 0 topology_change 0 topology_change_detected 0 hello_timer    0.34 tcn_timer    0.00 topology_change_timer    0.00 gc_timer  224.78 vlan_default_pvid 1 vlan_stats_enabled 0 group_fwd_mask 0 group_address 01:80:c2:00:00:00 mcast_snooping 1 mcast_router 1 mcast_query_use_ifaddr 0 mcast_querier 0 mcast_hash_elasticity 4 mcast_hash_max 512 mcast_last_member_count 2 mcast_startup_query_count 2 mcast_last_member_interval 100 mcast_membership_interval 26000 mcast_querier_interval 25500 mcast_query_interval 12500 mcast_query_response_interval 1000 mcast_startup_query_interval 3125 mcast_stats_enabled 0 mcast_igmp_version 2 mcast_mld_version 1 nf_call_iptables 0 nf_call_ip6tables 0 nf_call_arptables 0 addrgenmode eui64 numtxqueues 1 numrxqueues 1 gso_max_size 65536 gso_max_segs 65535
4: virbr0-nic: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master virbr0 state DOWN mode DEFAULT group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:fb:05:99 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff promiscuity 1
    tun
    bridge_slave state disabled priority 32 cost 100 hairpin off guard off root_block off fastleave off learning on flood on port_id 0x8001 port_no 0x1 designated_port 32769 designated_cost 0 designated_bridge 8000.52:54:0:fb:5:99 designated_root 8000.52:54:0:fb:5:99 hold_timer    0.00 message_age_timer    0.00 forward_delay_timer    0.00 topology_change_ack 0 config_pending 0 proxy_arp off proxy_arp_wifi off mcast_router 1 mcast_fast_leave off mcast_flood on addrgenmode eui64 numtxqueues 1 numrxqueues 1 gso_max_size 65536 gso_max_segs 65535
[root@kvmhost ~]# ip addr
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
    inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 ::1/128 scope host
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
2: eth0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 00:15:5d:00:24:2a brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 172.31.0.120/24 brd 172.31.0.255 scope global noprefixroute eth0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
    inet6 fe80::8364:c19b:ca0b:310a/64 scope link noprefixroute
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
3: virbr0: <NO-CARRIER,BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:fb:05:99 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
    inet 192.168.122.1/24 brd 192.168.122.255 scope global virbr0
       valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
4: virbr0-nic: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast master virbr0 state DOWN group default qlen 1000
    link/ether 52:54:00:fb:05:99 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
[root@kvmhost ~]# ip route
default via 172.31.0.1 dev eth0 proto static metric 100
172.31.0.0/24 dev eth0 proto kernel scope link src 172.31.0.120 metric 100
192.168.122.0/24 dev virbr0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.122.1
[root@kvmhost ~]# ps ax | grep [d]nsmasq
 1389 ?        S      0:00 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq --conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.conf --leasefile-ro --dhcp-script=/usr/libexec/libvirt_leaseshelper
 1390 ?        S      0:00 /usr/sbin/dnsmasq --conf-file=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.conf --leasefile-ro --dhcp-script=/usr/libexec/libvirt_leaseshelper
[root@kvmhost ~]# cat /var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.conf
##WARNING:  THIS IS AN AUTO-GENERATED FILE. CHANGES TO IT ARE LIKELY TO BE
##OVERWRITTEN AND LOST.  Changes to this configuration should be made using:
##    virsh net-edit default
## or other application using the libvirt API.
##
## dnsmasq conf file created by libvirt
strict-order
pid-file=/var/run/libvirt/network/default.pid
except-interface=lo
bind-dynamic
interface=virbr0
dhcp-range=192.168.122.2,192.168.122.254
dhcp-no-override
dhcp-authoritative
dhcp-lease-max=253
dhcp-hostsfile=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.hostsfile
addn-hosts=/var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.addnhosts
[root@kvmhost ~]# cat /var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.hostsfile
[root@kvmhost ~]# cat /var/lib/libvirt/dnsmasq/default.addnhosts
[root@kvmhost ~]# cat /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
1
[root@kvmhost ~]# iptables -S -t filter
-P INPUT ACCEPT
-P FORWARD ACCEPT
-P OUTPUT ACCEPT
-N FORWARD_IN_ZONES
-N FORWARD_IN_ZONES_SOURCE
-N FORWARD_OUT_ZONES
-N FORWARD_OUT_ZONES_SOURCE
-N FORWARD_direct
-N FWDI_public
-N FWDI_public_allow
-N FWDI_public_deny
-N FWDI_public_log
-N FWDO_public
-N FWDO_public_allow
-N FWDO_public_deny
-N FWDO_public_log
-N INPUT_ZONES
-N INPUT_ZONES_SOURCE
-N INPUT_direct
-N IN_public
-N IN_public_allow
-N IN_public_deny
-N IN_public_log
-N OUTPUT_direct
-A INPUT -i virbr0 -p udp -m udp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i virbr0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 53 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i virbr0 -p udp -m udp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i virbr0 -p tcp -m tcp --dport 67 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j INPUT_direct
-A INPUT -j INPUT_ZONES_SOURCE
-A INPUT -j INPUT_ZONES
-A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID -j DROP
-A INPUT -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
-A FORWARD -d 192.168.122.0/24 -o virbr0 -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -s 192.168.122.0/24 -i virbr0 -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -i virbr0 -o virbr0 -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -o virbr0 -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
-A FORWARD -i virbr0 -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
-A FORWARD -m conntrack --ctstate RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -i lo -j ACCEPT
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_direct
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_IN_ZONES_SOURCE
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_IN_ZONES
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_OUT_ZONES_SOURCE
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_OUT_ZONES
-A FORWARD -m conntrack --ctstate INVALID -j DROP
-A FORWARD -j REJECT --reject-with icmp-host-prohibited
-A OUTPUT -o virbr0 -p udp -m udp --dport 68 -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -o lo -j ACCEPT
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
-A FORWARD_IN_ZONES -i eth0 -g FWDI_public
-A FORWARD_IN_ZONES -g FWDI_public
-A FORWARD_OUT_ZONES -o eth0 -g FWDO_public
-A FORWARD_OUT_ZONES -g FWDO_public
-A FWDI_public -j FWDI_public_log
-A FWDI_public -j FWDI_public_deny
-A FWDI_public -j FWDI_public_allow
-A FWDI_public -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A FWDO_public -j FWDO_public_log
-A FWDO_public -j FWDO_public_deny
-A FWDO_public -j FWDO_public_allow
-A INPUT_ZONES -i eth0 -g IN_public
-A INPUT_ZONES -g IN_public
-A IN_public -j IN_public_log
-A IN_public -j IN_public_deny
-A IN_public -j IN_public_allow
-A IN_public -p icmp -j ACCEPT
-A IN_public_allow -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m conntrack --ctstate NEW,UNTRACKED -j ACCEPT
[root@kvmhost ~]# iptables -S -t nat
-P PREROUTING ACCEPT
-P INPUT ACCEPT
-P OUTPUT ACCEPT
-P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
-N OUTPUT_direct
-N POSTROUTING_ZONES
-N POSTROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-N POSTROUTING_direct
-N POST_public
-N POST_public_allow
-N POST_public_deny
-N POST_public_log
-N PREROUTING_ZONES
-N PREROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-N PREROUTING_direct
-N PRE_public
-N PRE_public_allow
-N PRE_public_deny
-N PRE_public_log
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_direct
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_ZONES
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
-A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.122.0/24 -d 224.0.0.0/24 -j RETURN
-A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.122.0/24 -d 255.255.255.255/32 -j RETURN
-A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.122.0/24 ! -d 192.168.122.0/24 -p tcp -j MASQUERADE --to-ports 1024-65535
-A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.122.0/24 ! -d 192.168.122.0/24 -p udp -j MASQUERADE --to-ports 1024-65535
-A POSTROUTING -s 192.168.122.0/24 ! -d 192.168.122.0/24 -j MASQUERADE
-A POSTROUTING -j POSTROUTING_direct
-A POSTROUTING -j POSTROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-A POSTROUTING -j POSTROUTING_ZONES
-A POSTROUTING_ZONES -o eth0 -g POST_public
-A POSTROUTING_ZONES -g POST_public
-A POST_public -j POST_public_log
-A POST_public -j POST_public_deny
-A POST_public -j POST_public_allow
-A PREROUTING_ZONES -i eth0 -g PRE_public
-A PREROUTING_ZONES -g PRE_public
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_log
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_deny
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_allow
[root@kvmhost ~]# iptables -S -t mangle
-P PREROUTING ACCEPT
-P INPUT ACCEPT
-P FORWARD ACCEPT
-P OUTPUT ACCEPT
-P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
-N FORWARD_direct
-N INPUT_direct
-N OUTPUT_direct
-N POSTROUTING_direct
-N PREROUTING_ZONES
-N PREROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-N PREROUTING_direct
-N PRE_public
-N PRE_public_allow
-N PRE_public_deny
-N PRE_public_log
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_direct
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_ZONES
-A INPUT -j INPUT_direct
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_direct
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
-A POSTROUTING -o virbr0 -p udp -m udp --dport 68 -j CHECKSUM --checksum-fill
-A POSTROUTING -j POSTROUTING_direct
-A PREROUTING_ZONES -i eth0 -g PRE_public
-A PREROUTING_ZONES -g PRE_public
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_log
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_deny
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_allow
[root@kvmhost ~]# iptables -S -t raw
-P PREROUTING ACCEPT
-P OUTPUT ACCEPT
-N OUTPUT_direct
-N PREROUTING_ZONES
-N PREROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-N PREROUTING_direct
-N PRE_public
-N PRE_public_allow
-N PRE_public_deny
-N PRE_public_log
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_direct
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_ZONES_SOURCE
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_ZONES
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
-A PREROUTING_ZONES -i eth0 -g PRE_public
-A PREROUTING_ZONES -g PRE_public
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_log
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_deny
-A PRE_public -j PRE_public_allow
[root@kvmhost ~]# iptables -S -t security
-P INPUT ACCEPT
-P FORWARD ACCEPT
-P OUTPUT ACCEPT
-N FORWARD_direct
-N INPUT_direct
-N OUTPUT_direct
-A INPUT -j INPUT_direct
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_direct
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
[root@kvmhost ~]# ebtables-save
# Generated by ebtables-save v1.0
*nat
:PREROUTING ACCEPT
:OUTPUT ACCEPT
:POSTROUTING ACCEPT
:PREROUTING_direct ACCEPT
:POSTROUTING_direct ACCEPT
:OUTPUT_direct ACCEPT
-A PREROUTING -j PREROUTING_direct
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
-A POSTROUTING -j POSTROUTING_direct
-A PREROUTING_direct -j RETURN
-A POSTROUTING_direct -j RETURN
-A OUTPUT_direct -j RETURN

*broute
:BROUTING ACCEPT
:BROUTING_direct ACCEPT
-A BROUTING -j BROUTING_direct
-A BROUTING_direct -j RETURN

*filter
:INPUT ACCEPT
:FORWARD ACCEPT
:OUTPUT ACCEPT
:INPUT_direct ACCEPT
:OUTPUT_direct ACCEPT
:FORWARD_direct ACCEPT
-A INPUT -j INPUT_direct
-A FORWARD -j FORWARD_direct
-A OUTPUT -j OUTPUT_direct
-A INPUT_direct -j RETURN
-A OUTPUT_direct -j RETURN
-A FORWARD_direct -j RETURN
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --state
running
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --get-default-zone
public
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
public
  interfaces: eth0
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --info-zone=public
public (active)
  target: default
  icmp-block-inversion: no
  interfaces: eth0
  sources:
  services: dhcpv6-client ssh
  ports:
  protocols:
  masquerade: no
  forward-ports:
  source-ports:
  icmp-blocks:
  rich rules:
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --get-zone-of-interface=virbr0
no zone
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --get-zone-of-interface=virbr0-nic
no zone
[root@kvmhost ~]# firewall-cmd --get-zones
block dmz drop external home internal public trusted work
  • 最終更新: 2022-05-24 04:56
  • by nabium